Almog was established as a Nahal outpost in 1977. Two years later became a permanent settlement. Over the years it has become is a popular place as a base for hiking in the Judean Desert, and the Dead Sea.
Almog became a kibbutz in 1979. It was named after Yehuda Kopolevitz Almog, a Third Aliyah pioneer who founded the potash mining industry which developed into the Dead Sea Works in Sodom. In the 1930s, Almog was one of the founders of the nearby kibbutz Beit HaArava.