The Arab–Israeli conflict refers to the military conflicts and disputes between several Arab countries and Israel and the political tensions. The dispute arises from the conflicting claims to the land. Territory stated in the Bible as belonging to the Jews is now claimed by some Arabs as the Palestinian homeland.
Tensions between Palestinian Jews and Arabs emerged in the early 20th century following the disintegration of the Ottoman Empire and rising to a full-scale war in May 1948 following the UN Declaration of the State of Israel. On the day of the establishment of the state of Israel the country was immediately attacked from all sides. Against all odds the modern State of Israel was born. The years that followed were uneasy with several wars ending with the tense cease-fire agreements. After the 1973 Yom Kippur War new peace agreements were signed culminating in in Israeli withdrawal from the Sinai Peninsula and Israeli Civil Administration and annexation of the Golan Heights and East Jerusalem.
The conflict has shifted to a more regional Arab–Israeli to a more local Israeli–Palestinian conflict, which peaked during the 1982 Lebanon War. The First Palestinian Intifada and the interim Oslo Accords led to the creation of the Palestinian National Authority in 1994, within the context of the Israeli–Palestinian peace process. The same year Israel and Jordan reached a peace accord. A cease-fire has been largely maintained between Israel and Baathist Syria, as well as with Lebanon since 2006. Despite the peace agreements with Egypt and Jordan, interim peace accords with the Palestinian Authority and the generally existing cease-fire, the Arab League and Israel remain at odds with each other over many issues.
The Syrian Civil War has heightened tension near Israel’s northern border wit the Syrian Arab Republic, Hezbollah and the Syrian opposition at odds with each other and complicating their relations with Israel. The conflict between Israel and Hamas-ruled Gaza following the 2014 cease-fire. Its 2006–2012 phase is, however, also attributed to the Iran–Israel proxy conflict in the region (Syria and Hezbollah are being supported by Iran). Since 2012, Iran (predominantly Shia) has cut ties with the Sunni Hamas movement on account of the latter’s support for the opposition in the Syrian Civil War.